Access to Electricity and Primary Education Nexus in Central Africa


  • Arsene Mouongue Kelly Department of Economic Policy Analysis, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
  • Beatrice Laure Toukap Yimele Department of Public Economics, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
  • Nidel Lolita Wassou Tchieu Department of Economic Policy Analysis, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
  • Pascal Ndyanabo Rutazihana Department of Economic Policy Analysis, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon



Access to Electricity; Primary education; Central Africa; Educational attainment


Access to electricity, a fundamental element of contemporary life, is essential for economic success. Its impact extends to the fundamental foundations of industrial development and has the power to improve a wide range of industries, including healthcare, transportation, utilities, and education. This article aims to analyse the effect of electricity access on primary education in Central Africa over the period 1997-2019. To this effect, we employ data mainly from the World Development indicator on 9 countries of Central Africa. Using the pooled ordinary least squares estimation technique, the results indicate that access to electricity contributes positively and significantly to primary educational attainment in Central Africa during the study period. The results are Robust to the use of alternative estimation strategy and eventual endogeneity problems in the results are account through the two stage least square estimation techniques which confirm our baseline results as well as the nature of the relationship between access to electricity and primary education in Central Africa. These results have important implications for policies in overcoming barriers to electricity access.


Acharya, R. H., & Sadath, A. C. (2019). Energy poverty and economic development: Household-level evidence from India. Energy and Buildings, 183, 785-791.

Akkari, A., & Lauwerier, T. (2015). The education policies of international organizations: Specific differences and convergences. Prospects, 45, 141-157.

Akram, V. (2022). Causality Between Access to Electricity and Education: Evidence From BRICS Countries. Energy RESEARCH LETTERS, 3(2), 32597.

Alam, M. S., Miah, M. D., Hammoudeh, S., & Tiwari, A. K. (2018). The nexus between access to electricity and labour productivity in developing countries. Energy Policy, 122, 715-726.

Alazraki, R., & Haselip, J. (2007). Assessing the uptake of small-scale photovoltaic electricity production in Argentina: the PERMER project. Journal of Cleaner Production, 15(2), 131-142.

Badr, M., Morrissey, O., & Appleton, S. (2012). Determinants of educational attainment in MENA (No. 12/03). CREDIT Research Paper.

Banerjee, R., Mishra, V., & Maruta, A. A. (2021). Energy poverty, health and education outcomes: evidence from the developing world. Energy economics, 101, 105447.

Barber, M., & Mourshed, M. (2007). How the world's best performing systems come out on top.

Barron, M., & Torero, M. (2017). Household electrification and indoor air pollution. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 86, 81-92.

Bhuiyan, M. A., Zhang, Q., Khare, V., Mikhaylov, A., Pinter, G., & Huang, X. (2022). Renewable energy consumption and economic growth nexus—a systematic literature review. Frontiers in environmental science, 412.

Bold, T., Filmer, D., Martin, G., Molina, E., Stacy, B., Rockmore, C., ... & Wane, W. (2017). Enrollment without learning: Teacher effort, knowledge, and skill in primary schools in Africa. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31(4), 185-204.

Bridge, B. A., Adhikari, D., & Fontenla, M. (2016). Electricity, income, and quality of life. The Social Science Journal, 53(1), 33-39.

Bruns, B., & Luque, J. (2014). Better teachers for Latin America and the Caribbean: new evidence on how to raise teacher quality and student learning. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Cabraal, R. A., Barnes, D. F., & Agarwal, S. G. (2005). Productive uses of energy for rural development. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour., 30, 117-144.

Colclough, C. (1982). The impact of primary schooling on economic development: a review of the evidence. World Development, 10(3), 167-185.

Cosentino, C., & Sridharan, S. (2017). IMPROVING TEACHER QUALITY.

Diallo, A., & Moussa, R. K. (2020). The effects of solar home system on welfare in off-grid areas: Evidence from Côte d’Ivoire. Energy, 194, 116835.

Díaz Serrano, L., & Pérez Reynosa, J. H. (2018). Impact of Duration of Primary Education on Enrollment in Secondary Education: Panel Data Evidence from Developing Countries.

Diniz, A. S. A. C., França, E. D., Câmara, C. F., Morais, P. M. R., & Vilhena, L. (2006, May). The important contribution of photovoltaics in a rural school electrification program. In 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conference (Vol. 2, pp. 2528-2531). IEEE. 10.1109/WCPEC.2006.279760

Dinkelman, T. (2011). The effects of rural electrification on employment: New evidence from South Africa. American Economic Review, 101(7), 3078-3108.

Driscoll, J. C., & Kraay, A. C. (1998). Consistent covariance matrix estimation with spatially dependent panel data. Review of economics and statistics, 80(4), 549-560.

Ferguson, R., W. Wilkinson, and R. Hill (2000). Electricity use and economic development. Energy Policy 28(13), 923–934

Fujii, T., Shonchoy, A. S., & Xu, S. (2018). Impact of electrification on children’s nutritional status in rural Bangladesh. World Development, 102, 315-330.

Guo, C., Xuening, W., & Meng, C. (2017). The Effect of Age at School Entry on Educational Attainment and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from China. Unpublished manuscript.

Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2006). Teacher quality. Handbook of the Economics of Education, 2, 1051-1078.

Jimerson, S. R. (2001). Meta-analysis of grade retention research: Implications for practice in the 21st century. School psychology review, 30(3), 420-437.

Khandker, S. R., Samad, H. A., Ali, R., & Barnes, D. F. (2014). Who benefits most from rural electrification? Evidence in India. The Energy Journal, 35(2). 10.5547/01956574.35.2.4

Kirubi, C., Jacobson, A., Kammen, D. M., & Mills, A. (2009). Community-based electric micro-grids can contribute to rural development: evidence from Kenya. World development, 37(7), 1208-1221.

Knight, J., & Shi, L. (1993). The determinants of educational attainment in China (pp. 285-330). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Maydeu-Olivares, A., Shi, D., & Rosseel, Y. (2019). Instrumental variables two-stage least squares (2SLS) vs. maximum likelihood structural equation modeling of causal effects in linear regression models. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 26(6), 876-892.

Nano, E. (2022). Electrifying Nigeria: The impact of rural access to electricity on kids' schooling (No. 03-2022). Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies Working Paper.

OECD, I. (2016). Energy and air pollution: world energy outlook special report 2016.

Olanrele, I. A., Lawal, A. I., Dahunsi, S. O., Babajide, A. A., & IseOlorunkanmi, J. O. (2020). The impact of access to electricity on education and health sectors in Nigeria’s rural communities. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 7(4), 3016-3035. 10.9770/jesi.2020.7.4(30)

Ouedraogo, I., Jiya, A. N., & Dianda, I. (2021). Access to electricity and health capital accumulation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Conference Paper: 2021 International Development Economics Conference (ICDE2021). [Google Scholar]

Oum, S. (2019). Energy poverty in the Lao PDR and its impacts on education and health. Energy Policy, 132, 247-253.

Pan, L., Dwumfour, R. A., & Kheng, V. (2022). Lightening the Path to Financial Development: The Power of Electricity.

Picot, G., & Hou, F. (2011). Preparing for success in Canada and the United States: The determinants of educational attainment among the children of immigrants. Statistics Canada Analytical Branch Studies Working Paper, (332).

Ramachandran, V., Gelb, A. H., & Shah, M. K. (2009). Africa's Private Sector: What's Wrong with the Business Environment and what to Do about it. CGD Books.

Robinson, P. M. (1987). Asymptotically efficient estimation in the presence of heteroskedasticity of unknown form. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 875-891.

Sekiwu, D., Ssempala, F., & Frances, N. (2020). Investigating the Relationship between School Attendance and Academic Performance in Universal Primary Education: The Case of Uganda. African Educational Research Journal, 8(2), 152-160.

Sipple, J. W., Killeen, K., & Monk, D. H. (2004). Adoption and adaptation: School district responses to state imposed learning and graduation requirements. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(2), 143-168.

Skelton, A. (2014). Leveraging funds for school infrastructure: The South African ‘mud schools’ case study. International Journal of Educational Development, 39, 59-63.

Squires, T. (2015). The impact of access to electricity on education: evidence from Honduras. Job Market Paper, Brown University, 1-36.

UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2014). A view inside schools in Africa: Regional education survey. Paris: UNESCO.

Van der Berg, S. (2008). How effective are poor schools? Poverty and educational outcomes in South Africa. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 34(3), 145-154.

Waita, K. J., Mulei, K. O., Mueni, K. B., Mutune, M. J., & Kalai, J. (2016). Pupil-teacher ratio and its impact on academic performance in public primary schools in Central Division, Machakos County, Kenya. European Journal of Education Studies.

Wilson, K. (2001). The determinants of educational attainment: Modeling and estimating the human capital model and education production functions. Southern Economic Journal, 67(3), 518-551.

World Health Organization. (2016). World health statistics 2016: monitoring health for the SDGs sustainable development goals. World Health Organization.




How to Cite

Kelly, A. M., Toukap Yimele, B. L. ., Wassou Tchieu, N. L. ., & Rutazihana, P. N. (2023). Access to Electricity and Primary Education Nexus in Central Africa. Journal of Regional Economics, 2(1), 26–41.